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Unveiling Varicocele: Your Step-by-Step Guide to Treatment and Recovery

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Last Updated on July 7, 2024 by Max


Welcome to an enlightening journey where we unravel the layers of a health condition that affects numerous men worldwide yet remains largely overshadowed in everyday conversation – Varicocele. This condition, often compared to varicose veins but in a much more delicate region, can cause discomfort and even impact fertility.  Often undetected and misunderstood, varicocele is a condition that affects about 15% of men and can have significant implications for a man’s fertility and overall health (Lundy et al., 2020). However, despite its prevalence, it remains under the radar for many.

In this blog post, we are pulling back the curtain and diving deep into the world of varicocele. From understanding what they are and how they can affect you to exploring the diagnosis process, treatment options, and the journey to recovery, we will guide you through every step. Ready to take the plunge? Let us get started!

Understanding Varicocele

Before navigating the intricacies of Varicocele, it is vital to lay a strong foundation. What is a varicocele? Simply put, a varicocele is an enlargement of the veins in the scrotum, similar to varicose veins, that can occur in the leg (Mayo Clinic, 2023). However, why does this occur?

The exact causes of Varicocele are not entirely understood, but it is believed to occur when the valves within the veins in the cord that holds up the testicles (the spermatic cord) do not work correctly. This results in blood pooling and causing the veins to enlarge. This is much like how varicose veins form in other body parts. Varicoceles often develop during puberty and are more commonly found on the left side due to the position of the left testicular vein.

Symptoms of Varicocele

Many men with varicocele experience no symptoms, and the condition is often discovered during a routine physical exam or fertility evaluation. However, if symptoms do occur, they may include:

  • A lump in one of the testicles
  • Swelling in the testicle
  • Visibly enlarged or twisted veins in the scrotum are often described as looking like a “bag of worms.”
  • A feeling of heaviness or discomfort in the scrotum
  • Testicular atrophy, or shrinkage
  • Pain or discomfort that increases with standing or physical exertion and relieves when lying on your back

Potential Health Risks

Varicoceles and Male Fertility

One of the significant concerns with Varicocele is its potential impact on fertility. Studies have indicated that about 40% of men with known infertility have a varicocele (WebMD, 2023). It can cause a decrease in sperm quality and quantity, potentially leading to fertility issues.

One study found that varicoceles were present in 21.3% of men under 30, 25.6% of men aged 31-40, and 21.5% of men over 40 years. Interestingly, the study found no significant difference in the rates of varicoceles between these age groups​.

Nevertheless, let us clear a common myth – having a varicocele does not mean you will face fertility issues. Many men with Varicocele can father children without any problems. As with any health condition, individual experiences may vary widely.

Impact on Semen Quality and Fertility

Varicoceles can impact various semen parameters, essential indicators of male fertility. They can reduce sperm concentration, total sperm count, and motility (movement) and affect sperm morphology (shape).

One systematic review and meta-analysis that included 16 studies of 2,420 infertile men with clinical varicoceles found that varicocele repair significantly improved sperm concentration, total sperm count, progressive sperm motility, total sperm motility, and normal sperm morphology. The study found no significant change in semen volume following varicocele repair. The study included both randomized controlled trials and observational studies, and it compared outcomes in men who received varicocele repair with those who did not receive treatment​​.

Varicoceles and Testosterone Level

Research has shed light on the potential impact of varicoceles on testosterone levels. A study involving 325 varicocele patients discovered that the mean serum testosterone level was lower than a control group of 325 men without Varicocele (Sathya et al., 2011). This hormone is pivotal in many bodily functions, and a drop in levels leads to symptoms like fatigue, decreased sex drive, and difficulties in muscle development.

Thankfully, there is a beacon of hope. A compelling study of 272 men with Varicocele and low testosterone showed a substantial rise in testosterone levels after undergoing varicocelectomy, a surgical treatment for Varicocele (Tanrikut, C., 2014). This highlights the potential benefits of treating Varicocele, extending beyond fertility improvement to overall well-being.

Controversy Regarding Treatment

Despite these findings, there is an ongoing debate about the impact of varicoceles and their treatment on fertility outcomes, including the likelihood of achieving a spontaneous or successful pregnancy following fertility treatment. Some researchers suggest that varicoceles may have effects at the cellular level, such as increasing reactive oxygen species and causing sperm DNA fragmentation, even when standard semen parameters are within normal ranges. They believe that treating varicoceles improves not only semen parameters but also fertilization and pregnancy rates, whether naturally or following fertility treatments like in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (Maheshwari A. et al. 2020)​.

Thus, understanding and treating Varicocele becomes crucial not just for fertility reasons but also for overall health and well-being. Armed with this knowledge, let us now explore how Varicocele is diagnosed.

Diagnosis: Catching Varicocele Early

Diagnosis is the lighthouse that illuminates the way forward on our health journey. So how is a varicocele diagnosed? This section will clarify the procedures, guiding you through each step quickly and confidently.

Physical Examination: A physical examination is often the first step toward diagnosing Varicocele. This involves the doctor feeling the scrotum for lumps, swelling, or tenderness. The physician might ask you to stand, take a deep breath, and hold it while you bear down (Valsalva maneuver). This can cause the Varicocele to enlarge, making it easier to identify. While the examination itself might feel uncomfortable, remember that it is a crucial step in identifying the condition and planning the right course of treatment.

Ultrasound Imaging: An ultrasound may be recommended if the physical examination is inconclusive or requires further examination. This non-invasive test provides detailed images of the scrotum and can accurately detect the presence and severity of a varicocele. It can also help rule out other conditions with similar symptoms (Mayo Clinic, 2023).

Other Diagnostic Methods: While physical examination and ultrasound scanning are the most common methods for diagnosing varicoceles, other diagnostic methods like Doppler examination and thermography can also be used. These methods can provide additional information about the blood flow in the veins and the heat pattern in the scrotum, respectively.

What to Expect During Your Doctor’s Visit

When you visit your doctor for a suspected varicocele, they will likely start with a medical history review and a physical examination. Be prepared to answer questions about any symptoms you’ve been experiencing, their duration, and how they affect your daily life.

Should you need an ultrasound, it is a reasonably straightforward procedure. You’ll be asked to lie on a table, and a clear gel will be applied to your scrotum. The ultrasound technician will then move a handheld device (transducer) over the area. The transducer emits sound waves, creating images of your scrotum and testicles on a monitor. The procedure is usually painless and takes about 15-20 minutes.

Getting a diagnosis may feel daunting, but it’s an essential step on your path to recovery. After all, one can only find the right path when they know their starting point. Now that we have covered the diagnosis process let us gear up to explore the landscape of treatment options in our next section.

Varicocele Classification

Clinical Varicocele can be classified into three stages:

  1. Subclinical: This is not visible or palpable and is only detected by ultrasound or other radiological examination.
  2. Clinical: This is divided into three grades:
  • Grade I: Palpable only during the Valsalva maneuver (a technique where one tries to exhale while keeping the nostrils and mouth closed, increasing the pressure in the chest).
  • Grade II: Palpable at rest but not visible.
  • Grade III: Both palpable and visible at rest.

Where to Get Diagnosed

There are numerous clinics and hospitals where you can get diagnosed. For instance, the Mayo Clinic, a renowned medical institution in the United States, offers varicocele diagnosis and treatment appointments. Their central appointment offices are open from Monday through Friday. You can contact them at:

  • Rochester, Minnesota: 507-538-3270 (7 a.m. to 6 p.m. Central time)
  • Phoenix/Scottsdale, Arizona: 480-301-8484 (8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Mountain time)
  • Jacksonville, Florida: 904-953-0853 (8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Eastern time)

Early detection and accurate diagnosis are critical to effectively managing varicoceles and mitigating their impact on fertility. If you’ve experienced any of the symptoms mentioned earlier, don’t hesitate to seek medical attention.

Varicocele Treatment Options

While not all Varicocele requires treatment, it is crucial to understand the options available to you to make an informed decision about your health journey.


Your doctor may recommend observation for cases where Varicocele causes minor or no discomfort and does not affect fertility. This involves regular check-ups to ensure the condition doesn’t worsen over time. However, if you notice a change in symptoms or your partner and you are experiencing trouble with fertility, it is essential to consult your doctor for further advice (American Urological Association, 2023).

Lifestyle Changes

Adopting specific lifestyle changes may alleviate some symptoms associated with Varicocele. These could include wearing supportive underwear, avoiding long periods of standing and sitting, and taking over-the-counter pain relievers for discomfort. While these changes may not ‘treat’ Varicocele, they can contribute to managing the condition more comfortably.

Surgical Treatments

Surgical intervention may be recommended when Varicocele causes significant discomfort, impacts fertility, or leads to testicular atrophy. Let us break down the two common surgical treatments:


Varicocelectomy is the surgical removal of the Varicocele through a small incision in the abdomen or pelvic area. The surgeon will cut and tie off the abnormal veins, rerouting the blood flow to normal veins. This procedure is typically performed under general or local anesthesia (Mayo Clinic, 2023).

Varicocelectomy has proven effective for symptom relief and fertility improvement. Studies have reported that approximately 70% of men improved semen quality post-varicocelectomy (Al-Kandari, A.M., 2007). For pain relief, success rates were even higher, with 90% of patients reporting significant improvement (Choi, W.S., 2019).

Despite its effectiveness, varicocelectomy is a surgical procedure with potential side effects such as infection, hematoma, scrotal tissue or structure injury, and hydrocele formation. There is also the risk of varicocele recurrence, but it is relatively low (Mayo Clinic, 2023).

Percutaneous Embolization

Percutaneous embolization: This is a less invasive procedure. A radiologist inserts a tube into a vein in your groin or neck through which instruments can be passed. A coil or agent is placed in the Varicocele to block the abnormal veins, diverting blood flow to normal veins.

About 65-70% of men had improved sperm quality after embolization (Belay, R.E., 2016). Though less invasive, it may have side effects like back pain, infection, hematoma, or damage to the blood vessels. This procedure also carries a slightly higher recurrence rate than varicocelectomy.

Both procedures have shown promising results in alleviating symptoms and improving fertility outcomes, but like any surgical procedure, they come with their potential risks and complications. 

Pros and cons of each treatment option

 Let us dive into the pros and cons of each treatment option for a more comprehensive understanding.



  1. High success rate: Varicocelectomy has a high success rate, with approximately 70% of men showing improvement in semen quality and up to 90% experiencing significant pain relief post-surgery.
  2. Low recurrence rate: Recurrence of Varicocele after varicocelectomy is relatively low.
  3. Positive impact on fertility: This procedure positively impacts fertility, particularly in men with varicocele fertility issues.


  1. Surgical risks: As with any surgery, varicocelectomy carries the risk of infection, hematoma, and injury to the scrotal tissues or structures.
  2. Recovery time: The recovery period may be more extended than percutaneous embolization, with more post-operative discomfort.
  3. Hydrocele risk: There is a risk of developing a hydrocele, a fluid-filled sac around the testicle, after the procedure. The incidence of this complication varies among different studies due to factors such as the surgical technique used and the definition of hydrocele. Studies report hydrocele formation rates after varicocelectomy ranging from less than 1% to as high as 10% (Kocvara R. et al., 2013). A hydrocele following varicocelectomy is usually small and asymptomatic, resolving without needing treatment. However, if a hydrocele causes discomfort or becomes large, further treatment may be necessary, often involving surgical drainage of the fluid.

Percutaneous Embolization


  1. Minimally invasive: Percutaneous embolization is less invasive than varicocelectomy, usually resulting in shorter hospital stays and recovery time.
  2. Success rate: This procedure can also improve sperm quality and alleviate symptoms, with a success rate of around 65-70%.
  3. Local anesthesia: The procedure is usually done under local anesthesia, reducing risks associated with general anesthesia.


  1. Higher recurrence rate: The recurrence rate of Varicocele after embolization is slightly higher than varicocelectomy.
  2. Potential vascular injury: While rare, there is a risk of damage to blood vessels during the procedure.
  3. Back pain: Some patients experience temporary lower back pain following the procedure.

Now that we have laid out the treatment options for Varicocele, it is time to answer the question of when treatment is necessary. Are you ready? Let us delve into it in our next section.

When Is Treatment Necessary?

The necessity for varicocele treatment mainly depends on the individual’s specific symptoms and circumstances. Here are the typical scenarios when treatment may be necessary:

  1. Symptomatic Varicocele: If a varicocele causes symptoms such as pain, testicular atrophy (shrinkage), or fertility issues, treatment is usually recommended. Pain can range from dull discomfort to sharp pain, which might increase over a day or worsen with physical exertion.
  2. Fertility Issues: Varicocele is one of the recognizable causes of decreased sperm quality and infertility in men. If you have difficulty fathering a child and tests show that a varicocele may affect sperm characteristics, your doctor suggests treatment.
  3. Testicular Atrophy: A Varicocele sometimes causes the affected testicle to shrink. The pooling of blood caused by the Varicocele can decrease the oxygen supply to the testicle, leading to damage and shrinkage. If this is observed, treatment is often considered.
  4. Adolescent Varicocele: If a varicocele is diagnosed during adolescence and there are signs of slower-than-normal growth of the testicle, treatment is recommended to prevent any potential long-term damage.

Remember, the decision to treat a varicocele always comes down to your unique circumstances, symptoms, and fertility goals. In many cases, varicoceles can exist without causing issues, making treatment unnecessary. Now that we’ve cleared when treatment may be necessary, let’s proceed to the recovery and post-treatment landscape in the next section.

Varicocele and Fertility: The Potential Impact and Improvements Following Treatment

Varicocele is a well-recognized cause of decreased sperm quality and infertility in men. It accounts for about 40% of cases in men with primary infertility and up to 80% in men with secondary infertility (Agarwal A. et al., 2016). Understanding its impact on fertility and the potential improvements following treatment is crucial, particularly for those desiring to father a child.

Impact of Varicocele on Fertility

Varicoceles can result in decreased sperm quality through several mechanisms:

  1. Temperature increase: The blood pooling in the Varicocele leads to increased temperature in the testicles, a condition detrimental to sperm production and function.
  2. Oxidative stress: Varicocele also increases oxidative stress that damages sperm cells and the DNA within these cells.
  3. Hormonal imbalance: Some studies suggest that varicoceles lower testosterone levels, affecting fertility (Hsiao W. et al., 2013).

Improvements in Fertility Following Treatment

Treatment of Varicocele, particularly in men with impaired fertility, can lead to significant improvements:

  1. Improved semen parameters: Multiple sperm parameters, including concentration, motility, and morphology, have improved after treatment. Studies report a 60-70% improvement in semen parameters post-varicocelectomy (Zini A. et al., 2011).
  2. Increased testosterone levels: As we’ve already discussed, varicocele treatment results in a significant increase in serum testosterone levels, which can, in turn, enhance fertility.
  3. Higher pregnancy rates: Several studies have reported increased pregnancy rates following varicocele treatment. A meta-analysis of several studies showed a significant increase in the chances of pregnancy after varicocele treatment in infertile men (Baazeem, A. et al., 2011).

It’s important to remember that while treatment can significantly improve fertility outcomes, it doesn’t guarantee a successful pregnancy. 

Tips for a Speedy Recovery and Optimal Health After Treatment

Ace your recovery with these practical tips:

  1. Follow your doctor’s instructions: Stick to wound care, meds, and activity limits for a smooth healing process.
  2. Stay vigilant for complications: Promptly report severe pain, infections, or odd symptoms.
  3. Embrace a healthy lifestyle: Exercise, eat balanced meals, and ditch harmful habits for overall well-being and better sperm quality.
  4. Keep up with check-ups: Regular visits help track progress and improvements in symptoms and semen health. Recovery takes time and commitment. With proper care and a positive mindset, you’ll conquer this journey. In our final section, we wrap up our varicocele guide. Ready for the conclusion? Let’s go!

Frequently Asked Questions

To wrap up our comprehensive Varicocele guide, we have compiled a list of some of the most commonly asked questions about this condition.

1. Can I still have children if I have a varicocele? While a varicocele can reduce sperm quality and fertility, many men with this condition can still father children. Treatment of the Varicocele often improves sperm quality and increases the chances of achieving a pregnancy (Agarwal A. et al., 2016).

2. Do all varicoceles need to be treated? Not all varicoceles require treatment. If the Varicocele is not causing symptoms, does not affect testicular function, and you are not trying to conceive, your doctor may suggest a watchful waiting approach. However, should the Varicocele cause pain, lead to testicular atrophy, or be linked with infertility, the medical team may recommend treatment (Shiraishi K. et al., 2012).

3. Can any natural remedies or lifestyle changes help with Varicocele? Maintaining a healthy lifestyle can support overall health and fertility. Regular exercise, a balanced diet, and avoiding smoking or excessive alcohol can be beneficial. However, these measures cannot treat a varicocele. If you have this condition and it’s causing symptoms or infertility, you should discuss treatment options with your healthcare provider.

4. Can Varicocele recur after treatment? Although it is not common, Varicocele can recur after treatment. The recurrence rate is approximately 1-10%, depending on the surgical technique used (Kocvara R. et al., 2013). Regular follow-ups with your doctor can help detect any recurrence early.

5. How soon can I resume normal activities after varicocele treatment? Recovery time varies based on the specific treatment you have undergone. However, generally, you can expect to return to normal activities within one to two weeks following varicocelectomy and even sooner after percutaneous embolization. Your doctor will provide specific advice based on your situation.

Remember, if you have any questions or concerns about Varicocele, it is always best to discuss them with your healthcare provider. They can provide advice tailored to your specific circumstances. If you have other questions that still need to be addressed here, please leave them in the comments section!

Don’t keep your thoughts to yourself—join the conversation! Share your experiences, questions, and insights in the comments below. Together, we can make a difference in the lives of those affected by prostate issues. Let’s empower each other and create a supportive community! Comment now!


Although a common condition in men, Varicocele can significantly affect fertility and overall health. Recognizing this, we explored Varicocele in-depth, uncovering its impact, treatment options, and the journey toward recovery and improved health.

We discussed the possible effects of Varicocele on testosterone levels and how treating the condition could lead to significant improvements. Also, we presented various treatment options, laying out their pros and cons to help you make an informed decision. We delved into the potential impacts on fertility and highlighted the promising treatment results in enhancing fertility outcomes.

Remember, while having Varicocele can be challenging, the path to managing it effectively is within reach. So, if you’ve received a recent diagnosis or are searching for more information, realize that you have companionship in this journey and can easily obtain help.

Do you have any more questions on the topic, or is there another topic you would like to explore? Let us know in the comments!


  • Agarwal, A., Sharma, R., Harlev, A., & Esteves, S.C. (2016). Effect of Varicocele on semen characteristics according to the new 2010 World Health Organization criteria: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Asian Journal of Andrology18(2), 163–170.
  • Hsiao, W., Rosoff, J.S., Pale, J.R., Greenwood, E.A., & Goldstein, M. (2013). Varicocelectomy Is Associated with Increases in Serum Testosterone Independent of Clinical Grade. Urology81(6), 1213–1217.
  • Zini, A., Boman, J., Belzile, E., & Ciampi, A. (2011). Varicocele Is Associated with Abnormal Retained Nuclear Cytoplasmic Residuals in Spermatozoa. Fertility and Sterility, 95(2), 639-643.
  • Agarwal, A., Sharma, R., Harlev, A., & Esteves, S.C. (2019). Effect of varicocelectomy on sperm parameters and pregnancy rate in patients with subclinical Varicocele: a meta-analysis. Journal of Urology193(4), 1578–1585.
  • Baazeem, A., Belzile, E., Ciampi, A., Dohle, G., Jarvi, K., Salonia, A., & Zini, A. (2011). Varicocele and male factor infertility treatment: a new meta-analysis and review of the role of varicocele repair. European Urology, 60(4), 796–808.
  • Kocvara, R., Dolezal, J., Hampl, R., Povysil, C., & Dvoracek, J. (2013). Division of lymphatic vessels at varicocelectomy leads to testicular edema and decline in testicular function according to testicular biopsy and hormonal profile. European Urology, 43(4), 430-435.
  • Shiraishi, K., Matsuyama, H., & Takihara, H. (2012). Pathophysiology of Varicocele in male infertility in the era of assisted reproductive technology. International Journal of Urology, 19(6), 538-550.
  • Maheshwari A, Muneer A, Lucky M, Mathur R, McEleny K; British Association of Urological Surgeons and the British Fertility Society. A review of varicocele treatment and fertility outcomes. Hum Fertil (Camb). 2020 Jul 7:1-8. doi: 10.1080/14647273.2020.1785117. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32635774.

6 thoughts on “Unveiling Varicocele: Your Step-by-Step Guide to Treatment and Recovery”

    1. Hi Remé,

      Thank you for your insightful question. Preventing varicoceles is a bit complex since the exact causes aren’t fully understood and they often develop during puberty. They are believed to be primarily due to faulty valves within the veins of the spermatic cord. However, maintaining a healthy lifestyle may help to some extent, although it doesn’t guarantee prevention.

      Here are a few general tips that may contribute to overall vascular health and potentially mitigate the conditions that favor varicocele development:

      Regular Exercise: Engaging in regular physical activity can improve your overall blood circulation, which help in preventing varicoceles by promoting healthy vein function.

      Balanced Diet: Eating a diet rich in fiber, vitamins, and minerals can support the health of your blood vessels. Foods high in antioxidants can combat potential vascular damage caused by oxidative stress.

      Avoid Excessive Straining: Chronic straining associated with constipation or heavy weight lifting increases the risk of varicoceles. Trying to manage constipation through diet and avoiding excessive strain during exercise could be beneficial.

      It’s important to note that these tips are not direct prevention methods for varicoceles, as the condition’s nature is somewhat unpredictable and may be influenced by factors beyond one’s control, such as genetic predisposition. If you’re concerned about varicoceles, especially if you have a family history, it’s worthwhile to discuss this with a healthcare provider who could offer more personalized guidance based on your health profile.


  1. I appreciate the detailed breakdown of treatment options and their pros and cons. It’s reassuring to know that not all varicoceles require treatment and that lifestyle changes can help manage the condition. Are there any specific lifestyle changes that you would recommend for someone with a varicocele, aside from the general advice mentioned in the post?

    1. Hi Stratos,

      Thank you for your thoughtful comment. You’re absolutely right; many individuals with varicoceles don’t need immediate treatment, but lifestyle adjustments can significantly impact their comfort and health.

      Beyond the general advice, specific lifestyle recommendations for someone with varicoceles would include:

      Exercise Regularly: Low-impact exercises can help improve circulation and reduce the potential discomfort associated with varicoceles. Activities like walking or swimming are gentle on the body while ensuring good blood flow.

      Maintain a Healthy Weight: Extra weight can put pressure on the abdomen and worsen varicoceles symptoms. A balanced diet and regular exercise are key to managing weight.

      Avoid Excessive Heat: High temperatures can cause veins to dilate, exacerbating varicoceles. Try to stay cool, avoid long periods in hot tubs or saunas, and consider cold showers if you’re experiencing discomfort.

      Elevate Your Legs: When resting, elevating your legs can assist with blood flow and reduce the pressure on the veins in your scrotum.

      Wear Supportive Underwear: This can help prevent the veins from enlarging and provide comfort.

      Remember, while these tips can help manage symptoms, they’re not a substitute for professional medical advice. It’s always best to discuss with a healthcare provider to tailor any lifestyle changes to your specific circumstances.

      Thank you for sparking further discussion on this topic!


  2. Hey, Interesting article. Health is an interest of mine and I can say this is a condition I have never heard of.

    Do people who have Vericocele usually just learn of it after they themselves are diagnosed with it? My guess is they go to their doctor and explain that they are having fertility issues and the doctor checks for it. Am I right? 

    It sounds painful, but I wonder if it sometimes isn’t and goes unnoticed. You did mention it goes under the radar a lot so I guess that answers that question. Thanks for the informative article.

    1. Hi Jason,

      Thanks for stopping by and sharing your thoughts! You’re spot on with your observations. Varicocele often flies under the radar because it can indeed be painless, leading many individuals to discover it only after a medical consultation for other issues, fertility concerns being a common one.

      Your guess aligns with typical scenarios. Many men aren’t aware they have varicocele until a doctor diagnoses it during an examination for other concerns. It’s one of those conditions that, unless it causes discomfort or fertility issues, might go unnoticed for a long time.

      I’m glad you found the article informative. It’s essential to bring awareness to conditions like this, especially since they’re often overlooked but can impact quality of life and health significantly.

      Appreciate your engagement with the topic!


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