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Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)

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Last Updated on March 30, 2024 by Max


PSA is an organ-specific enzyme produced by epithelial cells of the prostate. In healthy men, most PSA is secreted into seminal fluid liquifying semen, and only a small amount of it leaks into circulation. Normal PSA levels in the blood amount between 0-2.5 ng/ml. As a man ages, his prostate gets larger, leading to slightly higher normal levels of PSA. 

Based on age, what PSA level might trigger visiting a urologist? Austrian researchers found the following age range PSA trigger levels, which may significantly reduce the incidence of biopsies.

 Age Range PSA Trigger Levels:

Less Than 59 Years PSA 1.75 ng/mL

Between 60-69 years, PSA is 2.25 ng/ml

Greater than 70 years PSA 3.25 ng/mL

So the architecture of the prostate tissue keeps PSA confined to the gland. However, any disease condition of the prostate, whether it’s cancer, inflammation (prostatitis), or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), may compromise the integrity of the prostate tissue and increase the level of PSA leaked into circulation and detected by the PSA test. Moreover, prostate massage, biopsy, or transurethral resection of the prostate can also elevate the serum PSA level. So, none of the PSA triggering factors boost the real PSA synthesis in the prostate cells; PSA expression in cancer cells was found even slightly depressed.  Moreover, the incidence of prostate cancer in men with PSA levels below the accepted level of 4.0 ng/mL was found to be comparable to that of patients with PSA between 4.0-10.0 ng/mL. All the said allow stating that PSA should not be used as a prostate cancer marker. 

See also  Assessing Your Prostate Cancer Risk: Take Our Interactive Quiz

You can read the most relevant information about the PSA test in the post of the National Cancer Institute presented below.




Summing up all of the above, one can conclude:

  1. PSA may be used as a sign of prostate tissue integrity.
  2. Leakage of excess PSA into the bloodstream may be caused by various factors, including prostate cancer.
  3. Do your PSA test only to know the health status of your prostate, without any reference to prostate cancer.

In my opinion, it was a great mistake to approve the use of the PSA test to screen asymptomatic men for prostate cancer. We know that a high rate of PSA may indicate the presence of a prostate tumor. But it is the same as we know that people who have more than 100 birthmarks are more prone to skin cancer. It is good to be aware of that to take care of skin health and avoid harmful contacts that may trigger malignant transformation. However, this is not a cause of constant concern, affecting the quality of life and forcing long visits to doctors.

Do your PSA test to assess the health status of your prostate.

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2 thoughts on “Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)”

  1. Prostate cancer screening and early detection do NOT save men’s lives. Let’s do the math. Per the USPSTF (U.S. Preventive Services Task Force): “Only one man in 1,000 could possibly have a life-saving benefit from screening” and “A small benefit and known harms from prostate cancer screening”. However about 1.3 to 3.5 deaths per 1,000 from prostate blind biopsies. Also, 5 men in 1000 died and 20.4% had one or more complications within 30 days of a prostatectomy. This does not include deaths, injuries, and side effects from radiation and other procedures, medical mistakes, increased suicide rate, ADT therapy complications, heart attacks, depression, low quality of life, etc, caused by prostate cancer screening and treatments. Detection and overtreatment for prostate cancer have killed or destroyed millions of men’s lives worldwide from understated and multiple undisclosed side effects. The doctor that invented the PSA test, Dr. Richard Ablin now calls it: “The Great Prostate Mistake”, “Hoax” and “A Profit-Driven Public Health Disaster”. Follow the money!

    <-- My story: --/>

    Recommended books:
    The Great Prostate Hoax by Richard Ablin MD (the inventor of the PSA test)
    The Big Scare, The Business of Prostate Cancer by Anthony Horan MD.

    1. Hi JJ
      Thanks for stopping at my blog and commenting. It is difficult to disagree with the opinion of a person who has received the best service of modern medicine. And you can’t argue against the facts. It’s no secret that human health is the most convertible business. As I noted in the conclusion of the post “it was a great mistake to approve the use of the PSA test to screen asymptomatic men for prostate cancer”.

      I wish you health and long life!


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