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Testicular Sperm Extraction (TESE) is a medical procedure performed to obtain sperm directly from the testes. TESE is typically used in cases where sperm is not present in the ejaculate due to blockages or production issues, a condition known as azoospermia. The procedure involves either making a small incision in the testis to extract tissue (open biopsy) or using a needle to withdraw tissue (needle biopsy). The extracted tissue is then examined under a microscope in a laboratory to identify and extract viable sperm. These sperm can be used immediately for assisted reproductive techniques, such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), or frozen for future use. TESE is particularly beneficial for men with non-obstructive azoospermia, where the testes produce sperm but in insufficient quantities to reach the ejaculate.

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